Both men and women can have procedures to make them permanently unable to have children. Sterilisation is not used as a method of contraception for young people except in very special circumstances.
Sterilisation is more than 99.5% effective at preventing any future pregnancies, depending on the method used.
There are a few types of sterilisation procedures women can have and they all involve blocking the fallopian tubes so that sperm cannot travel up to meet the egg and start a pregnancy.
Male sterilisation is called vasectomy – it blocks sperm from getting into the ejaculate (cum).
Withdrawal is when the penis is removed (withdraws/pulls out) from the vagina before ejaculation occurs. It is not recommended as a regular method of contraception because it is less effective than other methods. Withdrawal can be anywhere between 78 – 96% effective at preventing pregnancy.
Things to consider:
- Withdrawal does not protect against STIs.
- It is less effective than other forms of contraception because:
- there may be some sperm in the fluid that comes out of his penis before ejaculation occurs (pre-ejaculate)
- you might forget to withdraw the penis or not be quick enough
- if ejaculation occurs at the entrance to the vagina some sperm may still get inside and result in a pregnancy
Fertility Awareness Methods
These methods of contraception rely on not having sexual intercourse at times of the month when the woman is most fertile.
This method uses cycle dates and/or signs from a woman’s body to tell when to avoid having sex, such as mucus changes, cervix changes and temperature rises. Fertility awareness methods are quoted to be anywhere from 75 – 99.6% effective at preventing pregnancy, but require specific education from experts in the field.
Things to consider:
- Fertility awareness methods do not protect against STIs.
- There are many days when you need to avoid sexual intercourse or use a barrier method like a condom.
- These methods are not as effective as other forms of contraception.
- You must monitor your cycle and if your periods are not regular, these methods can be tricky to use.
- These methods require cooperation and education of both partners. It takes a lot of practice to use them well.
The diaphragm is a small, round silicone cap worn inside the vagina to cover the cervix (the entrance to the uterus). When ejaculation occurs during vaginal sex, the diaphragm provides a barrier to stop the sperm entering the uterus. After sex, the diaphragm must be left in place for at least six hours.
For a diaphragm to work it needs to fit properly, be put in correctly and be used every time you have sex. When used correctly, the diaphragm is about 82 – 86% effective at preventing pregnancy.
The diaphragm is not generally recommended for young women because it is less effective than other methods.